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Mercenary / Private Military Companies (PMCs)
18 abr 2004
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<H2>Mercenary / Private Military Companies (PMCs) </H2>



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<h3>References</h3>
<ul>

<li><a href="../../library/report/2004/iraq_securitycompanies.htm"><b>Security Companies Doing Business in Iraq</b></a> <u></u> ND 2004 [American Citizen Services in Iraq, Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State]


<li><a href="../../library/report/gao/d03695.pdf">Contractors Provide Vital Services to Deployed Forces but Are Not Adequately Addressed in DOD
Plans </a> GAO-03-695 - June 2003


<li><a href="../../library/report/2004/mercenaries.pdf">Private Military Companies: Options for Regulation</a> Foreign and Commonwealth Office February 12, 2002
<li><a href="../../library/report/2004/cm5642.pdf">PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES</a> - SESSION 2001–2002 -- RESPONSE OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AND COMMONWEALTH AFFAIRS October 2002

<li><a href="../../library/report/2002/e-cn4-2002-20.htm">Report on the question of the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to
self-determination, submitted by Mr. Enrique Bernales Ballesteros, Special Rapporteur, pursuant to Commission resolution 2001/3 </a>E/CN.4/2002/20 -- 10 January 2002

<li><a href="../../library/report/2001/pmc-legitimate-entity.pdf">THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY: A LEGITIMATE INTERNATIONAL ENTITY WITHIN MODERN CONFLICT</a> A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College - 2001

<li><a href="../../library/report/1997/e-cn-4-1997-24.htm">Report on the question of the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination, submitted by Mr. Enrique Bernales Ballesteros, Special Rapporteur </a>E/CN.4/1997/24 -- 20 February 1997

<li><a href="../../library/policy/int.htm">International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries,</a> 4 December 1989
<br><br>


<LI><A HREF="../../../wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/04/iraq-040413-rferl01.htm">Iraq: Private Security Personnel -- Dangerous Or Cost-Effective?</A> <U>RFE/RL</U> 13 Apr 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../../wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/04/iraq-040402-rferl02.htm">Iraq: Al-Fallujah Deaths Highlight Role Of Private Security Forces</A> <U>RFE/RL</U> 02 Apr 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040326-irin04.htm">SOUTH AFRICA: Guns still for hire for troubled continent</A> <U>IRIN</U> 26 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040323-23e82f2e.htm">ZIMBABWE/ MERCENARIES</A> <U>VOA</U> 23 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040317-irin07.htm">ZIMBABWE: Suspected soldiers of fortune charged under security law</A> <U>IRIN</U> 17 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040317-37e81ecd.htm">ZIMBABWE / PLANE</A> <U>VOA</U> 17 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040311-irin03.htm">ZIMBABWE: Suspected mercenaries awaiting charges</A> <U>IRIN</U> 11 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040310-3fe80ae3.htm">SAF/MERCENARIES</A> <U>VOA</U> 10 Mar 2004
<LI><A HREF="../../library/news/2004/03/mil-040309-27e808e5.htm">ZIMBABWE/PLANE</A> <U>VOA</U> 09 Mar 2004



</ul>


<h3>Links</h3>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.ipoaonline.org/";>International Peace Operations Association</a>
<li><a href="http://www.ipoaonline.org/news/092300.htm";>Private Security Firms Can End Africa's Wars Cheaply</a> By Peter Fabricius, Saturday Star (Johannesburg) September 23, 2000
<li><a href="http://www.fortliberty.org/private-military-companies.shtml";>Private Military Companies</a>
<li><a href="http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/peacekpg/reform/training.htm#pmc&qu;>Private Military Companies</a>
<li><a href="http://www.primetimecrime.com/Recent/War%20on%20terror/Private%20Militar;>Private Military Companies</a>

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<p>The term mercenary is applied to a variety of historical situations which do not appear to have elements in common. Casca, the eternal mercenary, pulled the duty of nailing Christ to the Cross and was doomed to spend eternity as a soldier, a career that can lead to billets like sitting on five-gallon water cans in the cold desert wind on Christmas Eve in Saudi Arabia.

<p>Part of the US Occupation force in Iraq, the in-country commander, LTG Sanchez decreed that federal civilians will not carry weapons. But being well acquainted with some fellow federal civilians, if they were armed over here it would scare the "you know what". Consequently, every time civilians leave their "safe area", they must have what are called "shooters" with along. They are sometimes the mercenary security teams who are hired and paid by the contractors. Other times they are young American men and women in the US Army.

<p>Since the end of the Cold War there has been a disproportionate growth in the tail to tooth ratio on the battlefield; that is, a marked escalation in the number of support functions relative to actual combat power. As weapons and equipment become more complex and challenging to maintain and operate, there is a greater willingness to rely on civilian contractors who can provide services ranging from monitoring advanced weapon systems to rendering technical assistance and logistical support. No longer restricted solely to acquisition and logistical functions, contractors often accompany the military into war zones and even into battle.

<p>Is the battlefield contractor, in a sense, a corporate soldier and is the U.S. military becoming increasingly commercialized, privatized, and outsourced? The presence of civilians accompanying the force on the battlefield has legal and ethical ramifications and raises troubling questions relating to issues of chain of command, authority, accountability, force protection, and, ultimately, mission effectiveness. That presence, too, provokes discussion about the growth of the privatized military industry and the reliance on civilians in the realm of military training, international security missions, and peacekeeping operations.

<p>The post Cold War world has given rise both to new problems and new opportunities. In many areas we need to test the received wisdom against an evolving post Cold War reality. The global confrontation of the Cold War and its massive military establishments have been winding down; instead we find ourselves in a world of small wars and weak states. Many of these states need outside help to maintain security at home. There may also be an increasing need for intervention by the international community. At the same time, in developed countries, the private sector is becoming increasingly involved in military and security activity. States and international organisations are turning to the private sector as a cost effective way of procuring services which would once have been the exclusive preserve of the military. It is British Government policy for example to outsource certain tasks that in earlier days would have been undertaken by the armed services.

<p>The demand for private military services is likely to increase. The cases that attract most attention are those where a government employs a private military company to help it in a conflict – as the governments of Sierra Leone and Angola have done. Such cases are in practice rare and are likely to remain so; but we may well see an increase in private contracts for training or logistics. Some of this demand may come from states which cannot afford to keep large military establishments themselves. But demand may also come from developed countries. It is notable for example that the United States has employed private military companies to recruit and manage monitors in the Balkans.

<p>A further source of demand for private military services could be international organisations. The private sector is already active and effective in areas that would once have been seen as the preserve of the military – demining for example. And both the UN and international NGOs employ private companies to provide them with security and logistics support. A strong and reputable private military sector might have a role in enabling the UN to respond more rapidly and more effectively in crises. The cost of employing private military companies for certain functions in UN operations could be much lower than that of national armed forces. Clearly there are many pitfalls in this which need to be considered carefully. There are, for example, important concerns about human rights, sovereignty and accountability which we examine in this paper.

<p>Today’s world is a far cry from the 1960s when private military activity usually meant mercenaries of the rather unsavoury kind involved in post-colonial or neo-colonial conflicts. Such people still exist; and some of them may be present at the lower end of the spectrum of private military companies. One of the reasons for considering the option of a licensing regime is that it may be desirable to distinguish between reputable and disreputable private sector operators, to encourage and support the former while, as far as possible, eliminating the latter.

<p>MPRI was purchased by L3, DynCorp was purchased by CSC, and Vinnell was purchased by Northrup Grumman.

<p><u>Not all companies provide all services:</u>

<ol>


<LI><A HREF="http://www.acsdefense.com";>ACS Defense</A>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.ad-consultancy.com";>AD Consultancy (UK)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.akegroup.com";>AKE Limited (UK)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.airscan.com";>AirScan (US)</a>
<LI>Alpha Five (Hong Kong)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.ama-assoc.co.uk";>AMA Associates Ltd [UK]</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.armorgroup.com/";>ArmorGroup (UK)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.beni-tal.co.il/";>Beni Tal [Israel]</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.blackwaterusa.com//";>Blackwater Security Company (US)</a>
<LI>Combat Force (South Africa)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.csakuwait.com/";>Combat Support Associates</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.crg.com/html/index.php";>Control Risks Group</a>
<LI>Corporate Trading Intl (Hong Kong)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.cubic.com/";>Cubic Defense Applications</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.custerbattles.com/index2.html";>Custer Battles (US)</a>
<LI>Defence Systems Ltd. (UK)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.diligencemiddleeast.com/";>Diligence Middle East (US)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.csc.com/industries/government/mds/mds81/265.shtml";>DynCorp International(US)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.erinysinternational.com/";>Erinys Iraq Limited</a>
<LI><strike>Executive Outcomes</strike> (South Africa) defunct
<LI><A HREF="http://www.genric.co.uk/";>Genric (UK)</a>
<LI>Global Development Four
<LI><A HREF="http://www.gmssco.com/";>Global Marine Security Systems Company</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.globalrisk.uk.com/";>Global Risk International</a>
<LI>Global Risk Strategies (UK)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.group4falck.com/";>Group 4 Falck A/S (India)</a>
<LI>Gurkha Security Guards (Isle of Man, UK)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.halliburton.com/";> Halliburton [KBR Engineering & Construction]</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.hill-assoc.com/";>Hill and Associates, Ltd. (Hong Kong)</a>
<LI>Honey Badger Arms and Ammo (South Africa)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.icioregon.com/";>ICI of Oregon </a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.icpgroup.ltd.uk/icp.php";>ICP Group Ltd (UK)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.isiiraq.com/";>ISI Group </a>
<LI>Investments Surveys (South Africa)
<LI>Jardine Securicor Gurkha Services (Hong Kong)
<LI>Joseph Patrick International
<LI>Kas Enterprises (South Africa)
<LI>Longreach Security (South Africa)
<LI>Main Street Supply
<LI>Meteoric Tactical Solutions (South Africa)
<LI>Meyer & Associates (US)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.mpri.com/";>Military Professional Resources Inc. (US)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.northbridgeservices.com/";>Northbridge Services Group Ltd.</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.olivesecurity.com/newtest/pages/framesetthree.htm";>Olive Security Ltd (UK)</a>
<LI>Omega Support Ltd. (Hong Kong)
<LI>Optimal Solution Services (Australia)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.ogara-hess.com/";>O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt</a>
<LI>Overseas Security & Strategic Information, Inc (US)
<LI>PAE
<LI>Parasec Strategic Concept (Hong Kong)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.ramops.com/";>RamOPS Risk Management Group (US)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.sandline.com/site/index.html";>Sandline (UK)</a>
<LI>Saracen International (South Africa)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.securicor.com";>Securicor Hong Kong</a>
<LI>Shield Security (South Africa)
<LI>Special Project Service Ltd. (UK)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.scigis.com/";>Strategic Consulting International (SCI)</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.corporatebankintl.com/sumer.html";>Sumer International Security Iraq</a> [DynCorp]
<LI><A HREF="http://www.steelefoundation.com/";>The Steele Foundation</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.triplecanopy.com/";>Triple Canopy Inc.[US]</a>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.vinnell.com/";>Vinnell Corporation (US)</a> : A Northrop Grumman Company
<LI><A HREF="http://www.wade-boyd.com/";>Wade-Boyd and Associates LLC </a>



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Last Modified:

April 17, 2004 - 16:57
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Comentaris

a ver si ahora
18 abr 2004
No dejan poner etiqueta a href? En ese caso..menudos geeks XD
  1. ACS Defense
  2. AD Consultancy (UK)
  3. AKE Limited (UK)
  4. AirScan (US)
  5. Alpha Five (Hong Kong)
  6. AMA Associates Ltd [UK]
  7. ArmorGroup (UK)
  8. Beni Tal [Israel]
  9. Blackwater Security Company (US)
  10. Combat Force (South Africa)
  11. Combat Support Associates
  12. Control Risks Group
  13. Corporate Trading Intl (Hong Kong)
  14. Cubic Defense Applications
  15. Custer Battles (US)
  16. Defence Systems Ltd. (UK)
  17. Diligence Middle East (US)
  18. DynCorp International(US)
  19. Erinys Iraq Limited
  20. Executive Outcomes (South Africa) defunct
  21. Genric (UK)
  22. Global Development Four
  23. Global Marine Security Systems Company
  24. Global Risk International
  25. Global Risk Strategies (UK)
  26. Group 4 Falck A/S (India)
  27. Gurkha Security Guards (Isle of Man, UK)
  28. Halliburton [KBR Engineering & Construction]
  29. Hill and Associates, Ltd. (Hong Kong)
  30. Honey Badger Arms and Ammo (South Africa)
  31. ICI of Oregon
  32. ICP Group Ltd (UK)
  33. ISI Group
  34. Investments Surveys (South Africa)
  35. Jardine Securicor Gurkha Services (Hong Kong)
  36. Joseph Patrick International
  37. Kas Enterprises (South Africa)
  38. Longreach Security (South Africa)
  39. Main Street Supply
  40. Meteoric Tactical Solutions (South Africa)
  41. Meyer & Associates (US)
  42. Military Professional Resources Inc. (US)
  43. Northbridge Services Group Ltd.
  44. Olive Security Ltd (UK)
  45. Omega Support Ltd. (Hong Kong)
  46. Optimal Solution Services (Australia)
  47. O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt
  48. Overseas Security & Strategic Information, Inc (US)
  49. PAE
  50. Parasec Strategic Concept (Hong Kong)
  51. RamOPS Risk Management Group (US)
  52. Sandline (UK)
  53. Saracen International (South Africa)
  54. Securicor Hong Kong
  55. Shield Security (South Africa)
  56. Special Project Service Ltd. (UK)
  57. Strategic Consulting International (SCI)
  58. Sumer International Security Iraq [DynCorp]
  59. The Steele Foundation
  60. Triple Canopy Inc.[US]
  61. Vinnell Corporation (US) : A Northrop Grumman Company
  62. Wade-Boyd and Associates LLC
Re: Mercenary / Private Military Companies (PMCs)
18 abr 2004
No habia salido en el primer intento.

La inteligencia militar es a la inteligencia lo que la musica militar a la música
Mili-kk
no olvides elegir en el desplegable que es html
18 abr 2004
creo q es lo q te ha pasado al publicar. por eso tienes tantas vueltas d carro y no te coge los tags.
Si alguien lo quiere ver en original
18 abr 2004
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/mercenary.htm
Sindicat